- Aida competitions and their general set up and
- Certain aspects of the rules (ropeviolation e t c
so you can be reliable witnesse for the judges).
- Main aspects of handling oxygendevices, the theory of
- The antiballast set up, the design of a safe
bottomplate, risks of a AB in motion.
- Thermoclines, currents, visbility evaluation.
- Signs communication within the team, , surveilance and
- When to start, double safety, grab and holding
positions, personal safety self rescue
- Hydration, Packing BO, LMC signs, laryngospasm, the
mind of a BO victim.
Checklist (supervisor or head safety
- Is the O2 set up and working? Is the nearest hospital/chamber
- Is the communication possibilities with a hospital?
- Is there a evacuation vehicle on standby?
- Is there something that can be used as a stretcher?
- Has the medic arrived?
- Does the medic understand apnea?
- Is there .rst aid present (cuts and wounds)?
- Is the botttomplate constructed to minimize posibility
- Do you have extra string, ducktape e t c.
- Has a weather forecast been checked?
- Is the warm-up area supervised by at
least on safetydiver from 45 minutes before top?
- Has all safetydivers got a schedule?
- Does the safetydivers at the line have a working
- Is anyone carrying an extra lanyard?
- Have you repeated hand and verbal signals and working
proceedure with the judge?
- Is there any scuba/trimix on standby?
- Has the antiballast been set up and tried?
- Can it be pulled up by hand?
- Who will pull up the line by hand if needed?
- Are there any currents? Will they change? How will
this affect the diveoperations?
- Who will release anti ballast at whos command?
- Check for thermoclines - inform judges and atheletes.
- Check for scubabubbles, posssibility of deep trimix,
check for midwater .oating debris.
Keep an eye on each other (within the SD team), if
in doubt about yiur perfomance speak to your safetybuddy,
always hookbreath, if stressed: come up on back, if
stressed: remove mask on ascent, maybe even hood. Remove
snorkel away from mouth on long dives. Stay close to the
line if in trouble, use the line if in trouble.
Do not overbreath - contractions makes a safer dive. If
in doubt of your capabilities or health status: tell
your SD partner about this.
Drink a lot starting the night before, drink every hour.
Have some carbohydrates in your stomach.
Drink energy drinks or eat powerbars during long shifts.
Signals & Terminology
Coming, turn, de.nite pull, unsure pull, touch, grab
(but no pull) carabiner moving, line is silent (no
carabiner can be heard), possible .ntouch, Trouble,
Blackout, losing air. Double safety. AB ready, AB
Be calm on the divesite, do not shout (if not needed
to), do not splash with .ns, do not send snorkle
fountains. Do not stress or drop the organisations
Do not coach athletes, treat all athletes the same. DO
NOT TOUCH AN ATHLETE UNTIL HE HAS DISQUALIFIED HIMSELF
(or before judge shouts "take" or "grab").
- Check lanyard while attaching, see if
the comp depth gauge is there.
- Observe the divers weights before the dive and check
if they are all there after surfacing.
- Be observant of packing-BO .s after start (or during
- Be observant to everything happening: boats, .oating
ropes, audience, athletes behaving eratic,
cameramen e t c.
- Do not expect atheletes to behave sensibly either
before or after their dive - they are at times under a
lot of stress or are deeply focused.
- After breathing O2 the athlete should not dive and
should leave the water and rest.
- Encourage divers to use lanyards on warm-up lines.
- Wear the same kind of t-shirt with in the safety crew.
- Normal meeting depths: 20 meters.
- Shallow divers and low risk divers: 10-15 meters is
- Lower visibility demands deeper meeting points.
- Deep divers and special circumstances: 30 meters.
- Dont push yourself over your own apnea limits.
- In CWT/CNF do not pull on the line or hang on it in a
way that "pulls" can be felt.
- When following up: 1.5 meter away, about half a meter
below. Only one SD needs to be
this close (if there are two diving).
- Check the divers facial expressions. Only grab a diver
that either: stops moving, has LMC spasm, involontarily,
loses air , blacks out.
Basicly any grip that will do the job under the
current circumstance. Preferably one hand at
the back of the head and one over mouth pushing up jaw.
Extend your arms and the diver
upwards so that you get free room for your own .nning.
- If AB is deployed: Check for warming up divers under
the weights about to go down.
- Be ready to divert the rope going down, so it goes
away from the other line coming up with
- Be ready to speed up the AB with your hands.
- Be ready to slow it down when diver approaches.
- Send one SD down to meet.
1) Turn diver unto his back.
2) Urge him to breath (he can hear you even during
3) Pat his cheek gently.
4) If breathing does not start - Lift mask to forehead
and blow over face.
5) If breathing does not start - Blow more.
6) If breathing does not start BLOW MORE over face.
7) After some 20-30 secs* without breathing start with
one "CPR blow", which might open up a cramping
epiglottis. Preferably wit diver out of water. Make sure
the head is way out of water and tilted far back. If
wavy get victim to land or plattform .rst.
Remember: no stress, an unconcious
diver will not die because you loose a few seconds
while being calm and deliberate in your actions.
Understand that a BO victim has a
subconsious that can percieve. This "consious" has taken
over and is trying to save the person. This consious
still believes the person is under water - and if he
opens epiglottis water will enter and he will die. The
BTT is about "talking" to the subconsious - by touch,
words and air (blow). If this is done determined enough
- BTT works.
If there is a feeling of panic around
the BO victim - the victim feels this emergency and
stays longer in "BO mode".
As a SD: don .t be a spectator. If you
are not needed with the actual rescue you can: keep
people away from the diving area, take and hold victims
equipment, prepare the next diver.
* To directly (or too early) go for a so
called rescue breath without using the bene.t of a
forceful blow in the face, might cause water in the
victims mouth which might get into the lungs when the
laryngospasm releases. cientists has argued that you can
not open a laryngospasm by forcing air against it.
In case of a blackout and/or squeeze oxygen will
speed up recovery and reduce damage, specially
in the case of lungsqueezeince this and/or deep
blackouts where the victim has been unconcious for a
long time. Oxygen will reduce blood.ow and diminsh
effects of squeeze and bleeding. The victim should not
lie down, but sit with the back supported (half lying
down). Legs should if possible be slightly higher than